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Clutch Maintenance: 3 Things to Remember to Keep Your Clutch Healthy

Friday, October 13th, 2017
This clutch bleeder is essential for clutch maintenance.

Clutch maintenance is something you might never think about on your daily commute, but how you drive a car with a manual transmission can have a significant impact on the longevity of this crucial component. The way you treat your clutch and the simple but important maintenance steps that you take can save you from a hassle down the road. Here are three key factors to keep in mind about your clutch.

1. Heat Is the Enemy

Like the care for most automotive components, a key aspect of clutch maintenance is reducing the amount of heat that it’s exposed to. It’s important to avoid situations where the clutch is partially engaged — like “riding” the clutch between gear shifts — to reduce the amount of heat generated by internal friction. Likewise, “slipping” the clutch while towing or hauling a heavy load produces high levels of heat that could reduce the lifespan of the part. If you can’t get enough forward momentum without slipping the clutch, try selecting a lower gear instead.

2. Left Foot on the Floor

There’s more to damage in a clutch than just the pressure plate. Even a small amount of pressure on the clutch pedal can engage its mechanism, which means resting your foot on the clutch while rolling down the road or sitting at a stop light can wear out the throw-out bearing over time. Sometimes the best clutch maintenance is simply changing old habits. When you’re not shifting, it’s a good idea to keep your left foot flat on the floor.

3. Bleed That Fluid

One of the side effects of the heat that’s produced while using your vehicle’s clutch is that it can introduce small pockets of air into the hydraulic fluid used to activate the clutch. One of the simplest forms of clutch maintenance is to bleed that air out of the fluid, which will eliminate any mushy pedal feel and improve overall performance. You can use an automated bleeding system or simply have a friend help you out by pumping the pedal while you access the bleed screw on the clutch’s slave cylinder, opening it up while your friend pushes the pedal down to expel the air – and then closing it again before the pedal is raised back up from the floor.

Finally, fresh clutch fluid will also help your clutch perform like it should. Topping off the hydraulic fluid after bleeding is important, but if the fluid already in the clutch reservoir looks dark or cloudy, it’s best to bleed it all out and replace it completely with new fluid.

Treating your clutch well is one way to ensure that your manual-transmission ride is with you for many more years to come.

Check out all the drivetrain products available on NAPA Online or trust one of our 17,000 NAPA AutoCare locations for routine maintenance and repairs. For more information on clutch maintenance, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.

Photo courtesy of Flickr.

The post Clutch Maintenance: 3 Things to Remember to Keep Your Clutch Healthy appeared first on NAPA Know How Blog.

Clutch Maintenance: 3 Things to Remember to Keep Your Clutch Healthy

Friday, October 13th, 2017
This clutch bleeder is essential for clutch maintenance.

Clutch maintenance is something you might never think about on your daily commute, but how you drive a car with a manual transmission can have a significant impact on the longevity of this crucial component. The way you treat your clutch and the simple but important maintenance steps that you take can save you from a hassle down the road. Here are three key factors to keep in mind about your clutch.

1. Heat Is the Enemy

Like the care for most automotive components, a key aspect of clutch maintenance is reducing the amount of heat that it’s exposed to. It’s important to avoid situations where the clutch is partially engaged — like “riding” the clutch between gear shifts — to reduce the amount of heat generated by internal friction. Likewise, “slipping” the clutch while towing or hauling a heavy load produces high levels of heat that could reduce the lifespan of the part. If you can’t get enough forward momentum without slipping the clutch, try selecting a lower gear instead.

2. Left Foot on the Floor

There’s more to damage in a clutch than just the pressure plate. Even a small amount of pressure on the clutch pedal can engage its mechanism, which means resting your foot on the clutch while rolling down the road or sitting at a stop light can wear out the throw-out bearing over time. Sometimes the best clutch maintenance is simply changing old habits. When you’re not shifting, it’s a good idea to keep your left foot flat on the floor.

3. Bleed That Fluid

One of the side effects of the heat that’s produced while using your vehicle’s clutch is that it can introduce small pockets of air into the hydraulic fluid used to activate the clutch. One of the simplest forms of clutch maintenance is to bleed that air out of the fluid, which will eliminate any mushy pedal feel and improve overall performance. You can use an automated bleeding system or simply have a friend help you out by pumping the pedal while you access the bleed screw on the clutch’s slave cylinder, opening it up while your friend pushes the pedal down to expel the air – and then closing it again before the pedal is raised back up from the floor.

Finally, fresh clutch fluid will also help your clutch perform like it should. Topping off the hydraulic fluid after bleeding is important, but if the fluid already in the clutch reservoir looks dark or cloudy, it’s best to bleed it all out and replace it completely with new fluid.

Treating your clutch well is one way to ensure that your manual-transmission ride is with you for many more years to come.

Check out all the drivetrain products available on NAPA Online or trust one of our 17,000 NAPA AutoCare locations for routine maintenance and repairs. For more information on clutch maintenance, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.

Photo courtesy of Flickr.

The post Clutch Maintenance: 3 Things to Remember to Keep Your Clutch Healthy appeared first on NAPA Know How Blog.

A Guide to MAP Sensor Cleaning

Thursday, October 12th, 2017
MAP sensor

Even a well-maintained engine will collect deposits of dust, dirt, grime, carbon and oil — both inside and outside. These deposits can cause many problems, such as interrupted air flow, fouled spark plugs or fuel injectors, engine overheating or skewed sensor readings. MAP sensor cleaning may be necessary if you’re experiencing poor fuel economy, rough idle, hesitation or stalling on acceleration, or an illuminated check engine light.

In fuel-injected engines, the engine control module (ECM) calculates fuel injector pulse based on several other sensor readings, such as engine RPM, engine coolant temperature (ECT), intake air temperature (IAT) and air–fuel ratio (AFR), among others. Air mass is a critical measurement the ECM uses to calculate fuel injection, and most engines are either equipped with a manifold absolute pressure (MAP) or mass air flow (MAF) sensor. Some turbocharged engines use both MAF and MAP sensors.

You can usually tell if you have a MAP sensor if you cannot find a MAF sensor in the intake air tube before the throttle body. The MAP sensor is usually mounted directly to the intake manifold, somewhere after the throttle body, though some are mounted on the firewall or elsewhere in the engine bay, connected to the intake manifold via a vacuum line. In some vehicles — older K-cars, for example — the MAP sensor is mounted by the ECM, connected to the intake manifold via a long vacuum hose. The MAP sensor continuously measures the pressure/vacuum in the intake manifold.

Checking a MAP Sensor

You can easily test a MAP sensor with a vacuum pump and multimeter. First, remove the vacuum line or remove the MAP sensor from the intake manifold. With the MAP sensor connected and the ignition in the “on” or run position, check the voltage output on the MAP sensor signal wire. Turbocharged engine MAP sensors will also respond to pressure, and their pressure/voltage readings may be different. Either way, check your repair manual for the wiring diagram and specific voltage readings.

The typical MAP sensor should read around 4.7 V when open to the air. Using the vacuum pump, you should see voltage drop to around 1 V at 20 inHg vacuum. Repeat the test and note that as you draw and release vacuum/pressure, the voltage should respond instantly.

MAP sensors contain no moving parts, and they don’t typically wear out, but cleaning the MAP sensor may be required if it’s contaminated by carbon or other deposits from the engine. If voltage is slow to respond to pressure changes, contamination could be responsible.

MAP Sensor Cleaning Step-by-Step

MAP sensor cleaning only entails a few more steps:

  1. Disconnect the MAP sensor connector and put on rubber gloves to protect your skin. Safety glasses are a good idea, as well.
  2. Use an electric parts cleaner on a soft rag or paper towel to clean the outside of the MAP sensor.
  3. Spray the electric parts cleaner into the sensor port — a couple of spritzes are usually sufficient. Shake out the excess and let the MAP sensor dry.
  4. Check the MAP sensor vacuum hose or intake manifold port for additional contamination. Clean these with electric parts cleaner and a brush if necessary.
  5. Once everything is dry, which shouldn’t take very long, the MAP sensor should be clear of contamination. Reinstall the MAP sensor.

MAP sensor cleaning is an easy way to restore engine performance and fuel economy. To keep other air and fuel system parts clean, consider an intake system cleaner the next time you maintain your engine.

Check out all the chemical products available on NAPA Online or trust one of our 17,000 NAPA AutoCare locations for routine maintenance and repairs. For more information on MAP sensor cleaning, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.

Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

The post A Guide to MAP Sensor Cleaning appeared first on NAPA Know How Blog.

How to Use a Compression Tester

Saturday, October 7th, 2017
Test all the cylinders in your internal combustion engine with a compression tester to narrow down the cause of problems.

The internal combustion engine has four strokes: intake, compression, combustion and exhaust. Each step requires the precise timing of several components working together to create the perfect environment to keep the engine running. And each stage is integral to the process — if something is off, your car will have a way of letting you know. Compression problems aren’t super-common, but when they occur, you’re already looking at significant repairs. If you use a compression tester to diagnose them early on, it can save you a lot of time and hassle down the road.

When Something’s Wrong

Low compression can be caused by a multitude of problems, from worn piston rings to stuck valves to a blown head gasket to a broken timing belt. And more! You might notice a misfire, lower power climbing hills, or perhaps your car won’t start at all. Compression problems definitely shouldn’t be your first suspect in most of these scenarios, but if you’ve ruled out other causes, or if, when you go to start the engine, it sounds like it cranks really, really fast, get yourself a compression tester.

Disassembly Required

Start with a cold engine. Disconnect the fuel pump relay and the main wire to the ignition coil. This will prevent fuel and spark from mucking up the process. Next, make note of the order and location of spark plug wires before removing them — they must be placed back in the same order later. Then, remove the spark plugs, taking care not to damage the ends. Keep them in order, as well, and inspect them individually for clues that something’s up in the combustion chamber.

Testing for Less

Starting with cylinder 1 (you may have to refer to your owner’s manual to find the cylinder ordering numbers), thread the compression adapter into the spark plug hole. Most compression testers come in two or more pieces that should be threaded or snapped together from the parts closest to the engine out — all only by hand. Next, have a friend crank the engine for five seconds or so while you observe the gauge. You’re looking for the highest number reached, typically anywhere from 125 to 160 psi on most vehicles. Make a note of this number, disconnect the tester and repeat for all cylinders. If one cylinder falls significantly below the others, you’ve narrowed the compression issue to something related to that cylinder. If all measurements are low, then your problem lies with something like the timing chain or a major mechanical failure.

In any case, head on over to your local NAPA AutoCare for a more comprehensive diagnosis, because low compression is no joke, and continuing to drive (if you even can) is going to do a lot of harm. This is one problem to get taken care of immediately before bad turns to worse.

Check out all the tools & equipment available on NAPA Online or trust one of our 17,000 NAPA AutoCare locations for routine maintenance and repairs. For more information on compression testers, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.

Photo courtesy of Flickr.

The post How to Use a Compression Tester appeared first on NAPA Know How Blog.

How to Use a Compression Tester

Saturday, October 7th, 2017
Test all the cylinders in your internal combustion engine with a compression tester to narrow down the cause of problems.

The internal combustion engine has four strokes: intake, compression, combustion and exhaust. Each step requires the precise timing of several components working together to create the perfect environment to keep the engine running. And each stage is integral to the process — if something is off, your car will have a way of letting you know. Compression problems aren’t super-common, but when they occur, you’re already looking at significant repairs. If you use a compression tester to diagnose them early on, it can save you a lot of time and hassle down the road.

When Something’s Wrong

Low compression can be caused by a multitude of problems, from worn piston rings to stuck valves to a blown head gasket to a broken timing belt. And more! You might notice a misfire, lower power climbing hills, or perhaps your car won’t start at all. Compression problems definitely shouldn’t be your first suspect in most of these scenarios, but if you’ve ruled out other causes, or if, when you go to start the engine, it sounds like it cranks really, really fast, get yourself a compression tester.

Disassembly Required

Start with a cold engine. Disconnect the fuel pump relay and the main wire to the ignition coil. This will prevent fuel and spark from mucking up the process. Next, make note of the order and location of spark plug wires before removing them — they must be placed back in the same order later. Then, remove the spark plugs, taking care not to damage the ends. Keep them in order, as well, and inspect them individually for clues that something’s up in the combustion chamber.

Testing for Less

Starting with cylinder 1 (you may have to refer to your owner’s manual to find the cylinder ordering numbers), thread the compression adapter into the spark plug hole. Most compression testers come in two or more pieces that should be threaded or snapped together from the parts closest to the engine out — all only by hand. Next, have a friend crank the engine for five seconds or so while you observe the gauge. You’re looking for the highest number reached, typically anywhere from 125 to 160 psi on most vehicles. Make a note of this number, disconnect the tester and repeat for all cylinders. If one cylinder falls significantly below the others, you’ve narrowed the compression issue to something related to that cylinder. If all measurements are low, then your problem lies with something like the timing chain or a major mechanical failure.

In any case, head on over to your local NAPA AutoCare for a more comprehensive diagnosis, because low compression is no joke, and continuing to drive (if you even can) is going to do a lot of harm. This is one problem to get taken care of immediately before bad turns to worse.

Check out all the tools & equipment available on NAPA Online or trust one of our 17,000 NAPA AutoCare locations for routine maintenance and repairs. For more information on compression testers, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.

Photo courtesy of Flickr.

The post How to Use a Compression Tester appeared first on NAPA Know How Blog.

How to Talk to a Mechanic About Your Brakes: 3 Tips

Friday, October 6th, 2017
Learning how to talk to a mechanic can help you deal with what's really behind brake problems.

Wondering how to talk to a mechanic about the problems you’re having with your vehicle’s brakes? It can definitely be intimidating to show up at the garage and try to convey the exact issues you’re experiencing with your car or truck to someone whose automotive knowledge is superior to your own. It’s good to remember, however, that your mechanic wants to help you as much as you want their help, which means communication is key when figuring out what’s going on with your brakes.

Check out these stress-free tips for zeroing in on the brake situation with your mechanic.

1. Call Attention to Odd Sounds or Vibrations

Most brake problems aren’t catastrophic. It’s rare for a brake line to snap and suddenly lose the ability to stop completely, as there are almost always signs beforehand that the braking system is starting to deteriorate. Often, they manifest with a sound — like a squeal or a thump — or a rhythmic vibration that you can feel through the pedal while braking. Being able to describe either of these sensations is a key part of how to talk to a mechanic about your brakes. Don’t feel shy or silly about imitating the noise, either, and if you can, try to figure out which side of the vehicle it seems to be coming from.

2. Identify When Symptoms Are Happening

The obvious answer here is “when you’re braking,” but not all stops are the same. When learning how to talk to your mechanic, it helps to be specific about the situation you are in when you encounter the problem. Does it happen when slowing gradually to a stop or only when hitting the brake pedal hard? Does it occur when it’s cold outside? Does it go away with time or get worse the longer you drive? If your pedal goes soft, can you pump it with your foot to get more pressure, or does it never improve? All of these details are helpful when getting to the bottom of the situation.

3. Ask for a Written Estimate

You can’t expect to remember all the details of your conversation with your mechanic, especially if you don’t have a lot of experience with cars. After he or she has explained to you the repairs that need to be done, make sure to get a written estimate of the work. This gives both of you a reference to the job you agreed on, making communication that much easier as the work progresses.

Brake problems are no small matter. Learn how to talk to a mechanic before your problem becomes a serious issue.

Check out all the Brake System products available on NAPA Online or trust one of our 17,000 NAPA AutoCare locations for routine maintenance and repairs. For more information on how to talk to a mechanic, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.

Photo courtesy of Flickr.

The post How to Talk to a Mechanic About Your Brakes: 3 Tips appeared first on NAPA Know How Blog.

How to Talk to a Mechanic About Your Brakes: 3 Tips

Friday, October 6th, 2017
Learning how to talk to a mechanic can help you deal with what's really behind brake problems.

Wondering how to talk to a mechanic about the problems you’re having with your vehicle’s brakes? It can definitely be intimidating to show up at the garage and try to convey the exact issues you’re experiencing with your car or truck to someone whose automotive knowledge is superior to your own. It’s good to remember, however, that your mechanic wants to help you as much as you want their help, which means communication is key when figuring out what’s going on with your brakes.

Check out these stress-free tips for zeroing in on the brake situation with your mechanic.

1. Call Attention to Odd Sounds or Vibrations

Most brake problems aren’t catastrophic. It’s rare for a brake line to snap and suddenly lose the ability to stop completely, as there are almost always signs beforehand that the braking system is starting to deteriorate. Often, they manifest with a sound — like a squeal or a thump — or a rhythmic vibration that you can feel through the pedal while braking. Being able to describe either of these sensations is a key part of how to talk to a mechanic about your brakes. Don’t feel shy or silly about imitating the noise, either, and if you can, try to figure out which side of the vehicle it seems to be coming from.

2. Identify When Symptoms Are Happening

The obvious answer here is “when you’re braking,” but not all stops are the same. When learning how to talk to your mechanic, it helps to be specific about the situation you are in when you encounter the problem. Does it happen when slowing gradually to a stop or only when hitting the brake pedal hard? Does it occur when it’s cold outside? Does it go away with time or get worse the longer you drive? If your pedal goes soft, can you pump it with your foot to get more pressure, or does it never improve? All of these details are helpful when getting to the bottom of the situation.

3. Ask for a Written Estimate

You can’t expect to remember all the details of your conversation with your mechanic, especially if you don’t have a lot of experience with cars. After he or she has explained to you the repairs that need to be done, make sure to get a written estimate of the work. This gives both of you a reference to the job you agreed on, making communication that much easier as the work progresses.

Brake problems are no small matter. Learn how to talk to a mechanic before your problem becomes a serious issue.

Check out all the Brake System products available on NAPA Online or trust one of our 17,000 NAPA AutoCare locations for routine maintenance and repairs. For more information on how to talk to a mechanic, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.

Photo courtesy of Flickr.

The post How to Talk to a Mechanic About Your Brakes: 3 Tips appeared first on NAPA Know How Blog.

How to Talk to a Mechanic About Your Brakes: 3 Tips

Friday, October 6th, 2017
Learning how to talk to a mechanic can help you deal with what's really behind brake problems.

Wondering how to talk to a mechanic about the problems you’re having with your vehicle’s brakes? It can definitely be intimidating to show up at the garage and try to convey the exact issues you’re experiencing with your car or truck to someone whose automotive knowledge is superior to your own. It’s good to remember, however, that your mechanic wants to help you as much as you want their help, which means communication is key when figuring out what’s going on with your brakes.

Check out these stress-free tips for zeroing in on the brake situation with your mechanic.

1. Call Attention to Odd Sounds or Vibrations

Most brake problems aren’t catastrophic. It’s rare for a brake line to snap and suddenly lose the ability to stop completely, as there are almost always signs beforehand that the braking system is starting to deteriorate. Often, they manifest with a sound — like a squeal or a thump — or a rhythmic vibration that you can feel through the pedal while braking. Being able to describe either of these sensations is a key part of how to talk to a mechanic about your brakes. Don’t feel shy or silly about imitating the noise, either, and if you can, try to figure out which side of the vehicle it seems to be coming from.

2. Identify When Symptoms Are Happening

The obvious answer here is “when you’re braking,” but not all stops are the same. When learning how to talk to your mechanic, it helps to be specific about the situation you are in when you encounter the problem. Does it happen when slowing gradually to a stop or only when hitting the brake pedal hard? Does it occur when it’s cold outside? Does it go away with time or get worse the longer you drive? If your pedal goes soft, can you pump it with your foot to get more pressure, or does it never improve? All of these details are helpful when getting to the bottom of the situation.

3. Ask for a Written Estimate

You can’t expect to remember all the details of your conversation with your mechanic, especially if you don’t have a lot of experience with cars. After he or she has explained to you the repairs that need to be done, make sure to get a written estimate of the work. This gives both of you a reference to the job you agreed on, making communication that much easier as the work progresses.

Brake problems are no small matter. Learn how to talk to a mechanic before your problem becomes a serious issue.

Check out all the Brake System products available on NAPA Online or trust one of our 17,000 NAPA AutoCare locations for routine maintenance and repairs. For more information on how to talk to a mechanic, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.

Photo courtesy of Flickr.

The post How to Talk to a Mechanic About Your Brakes: 3 Tips appeared first on NAPA Know How Blog.

WHAT IS HIGH-MILEAGE OIL?

Monday, October 2nd, 2017
Oil barrell

Curious about the bottles of high-mileage oil you’ve seen on shelves or the advertisements you’ve seen on television? Wondering if there’s a real benefit to using this type of oil in your engine, and if there is, when your vehicle crosses the threshold from standard oil to high mileage? We cut through the hype to bring you the straight answers you need to make the right decision.

What’s Inside Your Oil?

Modern engine oil is far more sophisticated than you might think. In addition to the actual petroleum-derived lubricant designed to keep everything rotating safe and smooth inside your engine, each bottle of oil also includes a package of additives. Additives are chemicals designed to further reduce engine wear and prevent corrosion, and detergents that help to keep oil passages clean and clear of sludge. In fact, it’s these additives that wear out over time, not the lubricant itself, requiring you to regularly change your vehicle’s oil.

Special Circumstances, Special Additives

As your engine accumulates miles, the additives required to keep it operating in peak condition can alter. Specifically, as interior seals begin to wear out due to heat and time, and sludge begins to accumulate more aggressively, standard engine oil might not offer the same level of performance as it once did.

Enter high-mileage oil, which contains unique additives such as seal conditioners that can rejuvenate gaskets and help prevent leakage, as well as stronger detergents designed to scour passages of sludge more effectively than a “normal” oil. This unique additives package is also why high-mileage oil is often a mix of synthetic and standard oil, as synthetic can offer a better anti-wear barrier between metal components that may no longer be in perfect factory-spec alignment inside an engine.

When to Make The Switch

Don’t assume that just because your car has passed its warranty period that it’s automatically time to make the switch to high-mileage oil. While some bottles might advertise the lubricant as being intended for vehicles with 75,000 miles or more, if you don’t see any oil leaks or drips or notice any blue smoke in the exhaust system that could indicate a seal problem, there’s probably no need to purchase this special oil. If you are well over the 100,000-mile mark, however, or have noticed evidence of leaks, then it’s probably worth talking to your mechanic about its benefits.

Making the right engine oil choice doesn’t have to be complicated. Follow these tips, and your high-mileage car will stay healthier.

Check out all the chemical products available on NAPA Online or trust one of our 17,000 NAPA AutoCare locations for routine maintenance and repairs. For more information on high mileage oil, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.

Photo courtesy of Flickr.

Gilliland Takes Runner-Up Finish at Meridian

Monday, October 2nd, 2017
Gilliland Takes Runner-Up Finish at Meridian

Bill McAnally Racing drivers continued their season-long dominance of the NASCAR K&N Pro Series West on Saturday night at Idaho’s Meridian Speedway.

All three drivers ran up front and were in contention to win the NAPA AUTO PARTS Idaho 208.

When the dust had settled from a two-lap dash to the finish in overtime, however; Todd Gilliland was credited with finishing second, Derek Kraus was fifth, and Chris Eggleston was listed as seventh.

 

 

 

The three BMR drivers remain 1-2-3 in the championship standings, with Gilliland leading Eggleston by 11 points, while Kraus trails in third.

Kraus had held a lead of more than four seconds in the closing laps on Saturday night when a late caution came out. Eggleston, who was second when the yellow waved, charged into the lead on the restart and crossed the finish line first – but was deemed by NASCAR as jumping the restart and was moved to seventh in the finish order. Kraus – who had led 58 laps – was sixth to the checkers, but moved up to fifth in the finish.

 

 

Gilliland – who in qualifying had won his sixth series pole of the season, the 12th of his career – led a race high 125 laps in the No. 16 NAPA AUTO PARTS Toyota Camry. He was fourth on the final restart and charged to third at the finish. He was subsequently moved to second in the final rundown.

 

Start / Finish: 1 / 2
Points Earned: 44
Points Standing / Total: 1 / 525

 

 

Next Race: All American Speedway, Roseville, California, Oct. 14
How to Watch or Listen: NBCSN

 

Todd Gilliland: @ToddGilliland_
NAPA Racing: @NAPARacing
Bill McAnally Racing: @BMR_NASCAR

The post Gilliland Takes Runner-Up Finish at Meridian appeared first on NAPA Know How Blog.